public argument may engage social values B u s i n e s s F i n a n c e

public argument may engage social values B u s i n e s s F i n a n c e

Thesis Statement (topic): Immigration has always been an issue of debate among the political candidates in the United States. Immigrants contribute to the socio economic and historical development of this country and therefore, proper and fair policies regarding how immigrants should be integrated to contribute their part should be of national interest.

Paper Instructions: Contexts of Argument overview

In studying the larger contexts of argumentation, we have learned that even discrete arguments as products do not appear in a vacuum. Public argument may engage social values and beliefs. Public argument may bring together people with difference backgrounds and experiences. It may connect people who have different experiences of power and unequal access to symbolic and material resources. At times, public argument may draw upon and reestablish what some people regard as “common sense.” At other times, public argument may encourage people to reconsider conventional wisdom and relatively unexamined views. The contexts of public argument are especially important in pluralistic societies like our own. Arguments in public debates may be supported by good reasons and yet debate participants still may disagree with one another. In these cases, disagreement may stem from such factors as value conflicts, conflicted histories and past interactions, and socioeconomic forces. And yet, even in these contexts, argument cannot be abandoned, because it remains an important means—in some cases, the only means—of resolving differences fairly and justly. We must continue to advance arguments even in seemingly intractable cases.

For this paper, you should select a current issue of public debate related to the course theme (e.g., systemic bias in policing, white privilege and politics, athletic protests of police violence, white supremacist groups) and explain the relevant context for understanding this debate. In explaining this context, you must incorporate relevant course concepts (e.g., publics and counter publics, rowdy deliberation, the politics of representation, authoritarianism). You’ll need to decide which concepts are relevant and how they may help your reader better understand the context of the public debate you’ve selected.

Any effort to explain a context requires choices about what to regard as relevant and significant. This is the primary task for your paper. You must identify and explain what you regard as the key contextual issues that would help the reader of your paper understand your specific topic. Here are some potential questions you might answer: What key issues have circulated in this debate? What is the history of this debate? What is the larger significance of this debate? What key values are being addressed explicitly and implicitly in this debate? What modes of interaction characterize participation in this debate? How, if at all, do differences of power among participants get addressed in this debate? How, if at all, do participants in this debate address their differences in backgrounds and experiences? What, if any, deliberative sense of public opinion emerges from this debate? What, if any, innovative modes of communication circulate in this debate? You cannot answer all (or even most) of the questions listed here. Answer the questions most relevant for your discussion of context. Six criteria should guide you in writing this paper: First, you should develop a clearly articulated, coherent, and focused thesis statement. This thesis should clearly identify the key issues and dynamics of the context you will explain in your paper. In explicating this context, you must make choices. You cannot say everything about your debate issue, so choose carefully, be specific, and explain why the issues and dynamics you have identified appropriately explain the context. The basic form of the thesis for this paper Should be: “To understand issue X, you need to consider factors A, B, and C.”

Second, the main points of your paper should be well-developed. If there is a relevant history that you reader should know, explain this history. But be concise; summarize only the key moments of this history. If participants have addressed their differences, explain what these differences are and how they addressed them. If the debate engaged a politics of representation, identify and explain this politics. Be wary of making unsupported assertions or gross generalizations; use your sources. Third, you should support each of the main points of your paper with clear, relevant, sufficient, and reliable evidence. Fourth, as noted above, you should incorporate course concepts and readings where appropriate. You will need to decide which concepts are appropriate and how they help us better understand the context. Then, you will need to incorporate them into your thesis statement and main points. Do not include too many concepts; 2-3 likely will suffice. Fifth, your paper should be well-organized. Sixth, your writing should be clear and error-free. As with your first paper, paper 2 should include these sections:

Introduction: The introduction should be one or two paragraphs. It should provide relevant contextual information for your argument, address the significance of your argument, clearly articulate your thesis statement, and preview your main points.

Main section: In the main section of your paper, you should clearly articulate and develop your main points. Each main point should be acceptable, relevant to your thesis, and sufficiently well-developed. Each main point should address a significant aspect of your thesis. If your main points are linked, you should explain their connections. The evidence supporting your main points should be acceptable, relevant, and sufficiently developed. Your evidence should also be reliable and, when applicable, you should cite the sources for your evidence. The length of the main section will vary depending on the length of your introduction and conclusion.

Conclusion: The conclusion should be one paragraph that summarizes your thesis statement and main points.

Bibliography: Using a consistent citation style (MLA, APA, or Chicago), your bibliography should provide full information for each source. Your paper should have a minimum of 6 sources. As the librarian introduced us to two databases—Opposing Viewpoints in Context and Academic Search—your bibliography should include at least 2sourcesfrom each database. Indicate in your bibliography which sources are drawn from which database. As you prepare your paper, use the ARG conditions as a self-check to consider the cogency of your argument.