promote societal awareness regarding pain H e a l t h M e d i c a l
The Advance practice nurse (APRN) consists of various branches e.g. the Nurse Practitioner (NP) and the Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS) .However their roles differ in theory and also abound by different ethics, to improve themselves, cultivate the mind which directs their practices when found going wondering.Ethical decision making plays an integral role of the NP and CNSs. For instance the CNS works to assisting staff in identifying and guiding them through solving ethical problems they may encounter. (Hazard, 2001). For instance when COVID 19 restrictions were implemented concerning hospital visitation, our CNS inquired from bedside nurses the impact of no visitors’ restrictions on patients they cared for. (micro/macro ethics). Decision was revised to have one visitor screened so they can be with their loved one. Without a clear understanding and the ability to articulate the underlying ethical principles, the CNS cannot fulfill ethical responsponsibility that governs its role as a mentor, researcher, teacher and consultant.
The NP on the other hand, gives direct care and comfort, not only to the patients but also the family at large. (Denisco& Barker, 2016). Recognizing biases, preventing moral disengagement, creating ethical practice environments, constitute the ethical responsibility to relief undue pain and suffering. For instance, ANA, 2016, p 28, reflects the ethical obligation of the NP to taking action against the disparities associated with access to pain management. The NP agrees pain is “whatever the experiencing person says it is, existing whenever he says it does” and hence the NP is ethically bound to (a) prevent, assess, and treat pain, (b) minimize disparities in accessing healthcare, (c) promote societal awareness regarding pain as a public health issue, (d) identify effective educational strategies for nurses, healthcare professionals, and the public (e) explore cultural meanings of pain and (f) consequences of undertreating pain.
It is worth to note that, both NP and CNS do not co-habit in a vacuum, solving ethical dilemmas involves consideration of ethical issues from both a micro and macro perspective.