healthcare tax credits help poor H e a l t h M e d i c a l

healthcare tax credits help poor H e a l t h M e d i c a l

African nations tend not to have lower health outcomes, experiencing epidemics of infectious and non-communicable diseases across the continent. There is substantial health inequality among and within many nations in Africa. Similar disparities in health also exist in Latin America. Cuba, Costa Rica, and Chile have health outcomes comparable to the United States, while Haiti’s health outcomes are comparable to the less healthy parts of Africa.

A variety of arguments can be made for the reasons why there is great health inequity in these regions. Some relate to the different colonial histories since health is transmitted inter-generationally. Colonization, neoliberal globalization, including free market, free trade, and the unrestricted flow of capital with little government influence, has resulted in large wealth inequalities. Some countries have cut their government spending on health programs, which has led to devastating health outcomes.

For this Discussion, examine countries and their health problems.

To prepare for this Discussion, review Week 10 and Week 11 Learning Resources. Select two countries with different per-capita income levels such that one could be classified as a “high income” nation and the other would not be classified in the same income category. Note: You may use The World Bank website in your Learning Resources to identify countries and their income levels.

By Day 4

Post a brief summary comparing the two countries and their health problems. Also, compare how the economic level and income inequality in each country influenced other social determinants (social dynamics, the status of women, education, or violence/homicide, etc.) for each country. Then, explain the impact of the determinants on the health outcome in each country. Expand on your insights utilizing the Learning Resources

Use APA formatting for your Discussion and to cite your resources.

Wilkinson, R., & Pickett, K. (2010). The spirit level: Why greater equality makes societies stronger. New York, NY: Bloomsbury Press.

Chapter 10, “Violence: Gaining Respect” (pp. 129–144)

Chapter 16, “Building the Future” (pp. 235–272)

Bor, J., Cohen, G. H., & Galea, S. (2017). Population health in an era of rising income inequality: USA, 1980–2015. The Lancet, 389(10077), 1475–1490. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30571-8

Cole, W. M. (2019). Wealth and health revisited: Economic growth and wellbeing in developing countries, 1970 to 2015. Social Science Research, 77, 45–67. doi:10.1016/j.ssresearch.2018.09.003

Di Novi, C., Marenzi, A., & Rizzi, D. (2018). Do healthcare tax credits help poor-health individuals on low incomes? The European Journal of Health Economics, 19(2), 293–307. doi:10.1007/s10198-017-0884-8

Ortega, B., Sanjuán, J., & Casquero, A. (2017). Determinants of efficiency in reducing child mortality in developing countries. The role of inequality and government effectiveness. Health Care Management Science, 20(4), 500–516. doi:10.1007/s10729-016-9367-1

Africa Population and Health Research Center. (n.d.). Retrieved July 4, 2019, from

Pan American Health Organization. (n.d.). Retrieved July 4, 2019, from