duration beyond six months post loss could lead B u s i n e s s F i n a n c e

duration beyond six months post loss could lead B u s i n e s s F i n a n c e

Hey. I need a Powerpoint on a recent reserach paper. 12 slides are fine. Below you will find the instructions and research paper.

For this assignment you will take your findings from your interview, research paper, and research articles and create a slideshow presentation to share with your classmates. The goal of this assignment is to teach you to consolidate your materials into a concise presentation to share your knowledge with others, and to learn to develop professional slideshows. A secondary goal is to read your peer’s work and develop two academic critiques in response to their presentation.

Part 1: The Slideshow Presentation

The presentation must be concise, consisting of 10+ slides, and it should cover your major findings. Make it interesting and remember that your audience, in this case your peers, has some basic information about crisis work so there is no need to explain the basics. Get right to your topic content as you are the “expert” on that field after all of your work. Your goal is to teach your audience the basics of your population’s symptoms, needs, and how to best help them through crisis intervention.

Requirements:

  • Cover the key findings of your research in 10+ slides.
  • You must integrate the biblical principles and truths you found through your research and how they apply to crisis intervention.
  • Clip art, photography, and other media are welcome. We want visually appealing presentations to interest the audience! Note that copyrighted material must be cited.
  • A title slide and references slide must be included in the presentation and do not count toward the 10-slide minimum.
  • The references must be in APA or Turabian format.
  • Slides must not be cluttered with too much information. Any additional information can be listed in the notes section of the slides. Just list the key points in outline form. Avoid writing long sentences/paragraphs as your audience would not be able to see them easily in a live presentation.

Here is the research paper:

Crisis Intervention with Death of Parent

Brandi N. Douglas

Liberty University

Abstract

Introduction

The death of a parent or parents, is a significative event in the life of any child. Several studies have demonstrated that it is a major disturbing and stressful experience for children. Parentally bereaved kids have major probabilities of developing diverse negative outcomes and functional impairment (Pereira, 2017). Behavioral and psychological problems are commonly the included consequences for the children that experienced this kind of reality. In the actual days the grieving process is well accepted for bereaved children, even when formal clinical assumptions discouraged the process the grieving process. Because of this, many children developed psychiatric conditions. Having this in mind, it is important to mention that crisis intervention is essential to diminish the negative consequences (psychological and behavioral) in the children. Also, this type of interventions may help by preventing damage (Pereira, 2017). There are diminished data about the children and adolescents ‘perceptions about the effectiveness of early interventions or treatment after the death of a parent (Nilsson & Ängarne-Lindberg, 2016).

Losing a parent can be considered a form of trauma. As a potentially traumatic event several studies have indicated that the effect of trauma varies depending on numerous factors associated directly with the children (e.g. the surviving parent´s ability to deal with the situation, past trauma, social surroundings, family environment, age). Also, associated researches indicate that the time that it takes of a kid or adolescent to move on with their life and to have professional support is variable. The general data indicates that about the 49% of the children and adolescents that experience an event like this paper to recover smoothly, about the 29% demand a little longer period of treatment (Nilsson & Ängarne-Lindberg, 2016).

Grief intervention commonly includes variable intervention approaches. Generally therapy, counseling, support groups, family interventions, and self-help are recommended for the treatment. These interventions are managed for a variety of academics and professionals like pastoral staff, nurses, social workers, psychologists (Berg et al., 2016). Thanks to the technology the accessibility to this kind of approaches are disponible in varied formats, also traditional methods are currently occupied (e.g. home visiting, telephone, internet, individual gruop) (Berg et al., 2016). Numerous research and literature data about bereaved adults indicate that the effectiveness of bereavement interventions for kids is small to moderate. Nevertheless, close interventions associated with high risk children were proved to be more effective. Academic studies indicate also that the recommended length of time to initiate crisis intervention after an event like this is a year and a half after the death of the parent or parents, but numerous studies also showed a time interval of five years postloss (Berg et al., 2016).

Several academics have demonstrated the importance of start intervention early in the mourning process of the children (Currier et al., 2017). They described that early interventions in the mourning trajectory could generate better achievements in the treatment of the children. On the other hand, when this process fails or the intervention take place later of the mourning process, the children may have changed in a maladaptive manner and could not be centered on their loss any longer (Currier et al., 2017). Taking into account the arguments presented above, it is clear that early psychological interventions for the management of grieve in children affected by the loss of any parent of both parents, is a significative tool to prevent complicated grief reactions, namely posttraumatic grief reactions, future psychopathology and diminish acute distress levels (Berg et al., 2016). Bereaved children in particular require early qualified help to improve their future development. It is necessary to integrate children and encourage early involvement and notification (Berg et al., 2016). Pereira et al. (2017) established in his article that results of the summary of several researches indicated that effectiveness and timeframes in this type of cases have not been deeply explored. The lack of methodologically equivalent studies of high quality indicate that the general conclusion is that grief affects directly the correct development of the child´s infancy.

Mental health symptoms

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) and the International Classification of Diseases, eleventh revision (ICD-11) emphasized in early interventions in this type of cases. According to several quantitative studies and experiences about long time intervals of intervention both of this reference discriminated the major significance of early treatment (Pereira et al., 2017). According to Maercker (2013), one important proposal included in the statements of the ICD-11 revision recognizes grief reactions as potential forma of psychiatric disorder. This classification establishes if the severe grief complications have a duration beyond six months post loss could lead to a psychiatric illness or disorder.

Also, the actual revision included in the DSM-5 associated with this type of crisis and intervention suggest a minimal observant time of six months postloss for children and twelve months for adults (Maercker, 2013). Some other articles and research suggest that a previous review is highly recommended in grief counseling to achieve successful results. These academics recommended initiate observation within six to eighteen months following the death (Jordan &Neimeyer, 2003). According to Jordan & Neimeyer (2003) suggested that the previous treatment or grief counseling should include and considerate different types of approaches in both early and later bereavement process in children. Intellectual disability is one of the mental health symptoms associated with these types of trauma. The DSM-5 defines intellectual disability as “a disorder with onset during the developmental period that includes both intellectual and adaptative behavior deficits in conceptual, social, and practical domains” (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).

Childreb and adolescents that lose a mother or a father or both face a potentially serious traumatic experience, even more when the loss is unexpected and sudden. Losing a parent as result of suicide, heart attack or accident is commonly associated to an alternative emotional scenario compared when a parent is lost by consequence of a prolonged or chronic diseases like cancer. The difficulties involved and the suddenness of the death in a situation like this generate controversial questioning about of what kind of approach or support would be perceived as providing the greatest relief (Nilsson & Ängarne-Lindberg, 2016). Both of these authors have studied the effectiveness of initial intervention in sudden death of a parent, their objective is to determine whether this approach is perceived valuable or not. As professionals it is important to be consistent of the implications or consequences of the different types of assessment that are included in these type of cases to increase the rate of treatment effectiveness (Nilsson & Ängarne-Lindberg, 2016).

Research indicate that the consequence of an individual trauma leads to significative subsequent potential traumas. Takin this into account it is possible to suggest that children affected by this kin of experience (a potentially traumatic event) are at risk of poorer well-being and health. Rostila & Saarela (2011) demonstrated that among the youngest children around ten to nineteen years olds, boys who have lost their mother have a potentially incresed risk of mortality comparated with those kinds that have not experienced an event like this. These academis also demonstrated in that adolescents among twenty to twenty nine year olds this riks diminisesh significatively. Besides, it is possible to observe among youngest girls increased mortality rates as consequence from the death of a parent (Rostila & Saarela, 2011).

Intellectual disability is one of the consequences of the loss of an intimate relationship. McClean and Guerin (2019) interviews 12 psychologist about supporting children with intellectual disabilities as consequence of the death of a parent. The results of their study indicated that the children were often abandoned when parent or family member dies. Also, they found that the explanations about the experience were currently vague because individuals often try to protect the kids with this kind of disabilities by not generating episodes of stress in them. Besides they mentioned that children with intellectual disabilities express their feelings generally associated with sadness by going quiet or utilizing challenging behaviors. As well they suggested that it is necessary to study and educate about the management of emotions for children with intellectual disabilities (McClean & Guerin, 2019).

According to Axberg & Hanson (2017), developing children have a major risk of developing psychosocial disorders after facing the loss of parent or bereavement. Several studies have respondent high incidences of separation anxiety and depression after the loss of a loved one. The common responses associated with bereavement are more common emotional responses to death, bereavement play, reminiscing and remembering, disruption to attachment relationships, exaggerated fears, sleeping difficulties, bed wetting, feeding difficulties, searching for the deceased, and behavior problems (Axberg & Hanson, 2017). The negative consequences of bereavement during childhood usually endure for a long period. Also these consequences lead to increased vulnerabilities to psychiatric disorders like anxiety and depression in adults (Axberg & Hanson, 2017).

The emotional responses to these types of event viewed in subjects or children with intellectual disabilities are similar to the responses observed in adults. Literature reports toileting patterns, changes of eating, behavioral changes, physical symptoms, fear of own death, avoidance, loneliness, confusion, distress, anger, anxiety states, and high incidence of reactive depression. Intellectual disabilities lead to cognitive impairments that diminish the capabilities of the individual from emotionally responding to that loss and noticing the absence of a loved one (Axberg & Hanson, 2017). Some feelings associated with bereavement of children who have lost their parents are sadness, anger, loss and feelings of guilt.

Best practices in crisis intervention

Within their book, Barnard et al. (1999) summarized that some key points learned from the experience of working with children that faced the death of a pared are: the value of listening and of listening uncritically; the value of storytelling to somebody who has something they want or need to say; the value of peer group support; the need for all-inclusive support amongst friends and family and a recognition that professionals can only ever be present to help for a small portion of time; the value of activity or action for channeling feelings. They also mentioned that some activities that could provide opportunities to enable the children to express him or herself with an adult or other children about traumatic experiences include: to support children, providing them with healthy coping strategies after the death of someone close to them; to listen to children and consider their needs; to talk to children; to make sure the children´s voices are heard; to monitor and evaluate work and recognize when changes need to be made; to recognize the group work as part of a process which aims to facilitate for, and enable, the children. These authors also funded that adults in family often required some assessment or support for themselves.

An alternative practice of crisis intervention for events of this type could be the one of Murphy´s (1996). He developed a three-step development process of preventive intervention for this type of cases. This program has the objective of reduce the incidence or facilitate the mastery of stressful life events. According with this author this type of intervention programs is effective and can be implemented and developed to diminish the negative impacts of traumatic life events. He described 3 steps associated in the construction of a preventive intervention being: identify and event that has undesirable consequences and a population that is at risk; study the event’s negative consequences and a population selected and develop hypotheses that reduce or eliminate the consequences;develop and test experimental programs based on hypotheses. (Murphy, 1996). This approach could be useful of investigative purposes.

Uncertainty among staff and families about the intellectual disabilities originated by this tragic event include fear about the develop of behavioral and emotional distress (Lord et al., 2017). As a consequence of this, caregivers could avert having a conversation about the death experience or the feelings of the children. These actions could cause a disruption among the family environment to include them in the bereavement ritual or discuss death with children with intellectual disabilities. Several studies have stablished the importance of integrating the child in the post death activities related with the incident. The importance of attending the burial or funeral in these types of cases significant event when the child presents intellectual disabilities. This action facilitates the understanding of the situation for the child and also give him or her the opportunity to be consistent about the tragic situation. Besides this it allows the patient to observe changes in the deceased and by consequence understand the process of death. All these integrations give as a result a lees prolonged grief according with Young (2017).

The data associated with the experience of bereavement in children with mental disabilities is almost obsolete. This disability is a protective factor or a risk factor for children who have experienced the death of someone loved. Lord et al. (2017), gave a series of recommendations to manage this kind of situation on children that have mental or intellectual disabilities. According to them it is necessary to accomplish preparatory actions before the death of a significant person such as: using literal terms when explaining the death to a child with intellectual disabilities;allowing the child to grieve; ensuring the child comprehends the implications of death; remember the deceased in a manner according to the abilities and needs of the child; encouraging the child to discuss death freely. Lord et al. (2017) also recommended to encourage careers and family members to involve children with intellectual disabilities in rituals of bereavement and give guided and supported grief.

According with these authors there are several factors impacting the concept of death formation such as, normalizing death as part of life; tailored to suit child´s ability; level of ID; direct versus indirect experience of death. Also, grief responses include, emotional underestimation; misattribution grief; relationship with the deceased. In the field of education, it is essential to encourage a proactive separation and equipping children with emotional tools. Some providing supports associated with the crisis intervention include, supporting the supporters and exposing bereavement as a normal process (Lord et al., 2017). McClean & Guerin (2019), discussion of death, grief responses, education, and providing support are essential factors within the crisis intervention of any child associated with a traumatic event.

McClean & Guerin (2019) recommended avoiding vague metaphorical explanations about death. They also explained that it is beneficial to use softer or less harsh words like “gone”. Some psychologists reported that social stories and visual materials are helpful to illustrate or portray factors linked with death. There are some available books that contain useful messages about the concept of death. The Stickney book is highly recommended in this type of cases due the messages about transformation and the irreversibility of death. Besides according with McClean & Guerin (2019), some factors that directly impact the concept of death are, the child´s prior experience with death and the level of intellectual disability.

Children with mental disabilities require more assessment to understand the concept of death. Some useful actions are attending to the funeral and burial and visiting the locations that are or associated with the deceased. Some psychologist suggested that some children could have an awareness of death due the observation of similar events on television or other type of media (McClean & Guerin, 2019). Some possible approaches are: equipping the child with emotional tools; teaching nonfunctionally, irreversibility and universality; concrete explanations; inclusion; behavioral manifestations; intellectual disability is no impediment to grief; a proactive approach (McClean & Guerin, 2019)

Spiritual applications

The children that are moved to residential homes or institutions have a major probability of intensified the negative feelings described before. There are several areas that integrate spirituality and children. In these types of conditions spiritual care could be an excellent option for improving the development of the child. Children facing bereavement, trauma, loss and undergoing difficulties often find comfort in spiritual care. Several studies indicate that spirituality contribute positively in the functioning in adolescence and childhood. Some researchers founded that children generally utilize spirituality to give meaning to their grieving process. The perception of God plays an important role within this process, also the personal relationship with God is also another important factor to considerate in grieving. Several vulnerable and bereaved children seen spirituality as a refugee. Spiritual spaces are helpful for bringing a sense of “home”. Practices associated with psychical health and good mental include reflection, and positive emotion rest (Pandya, 2018). Besides spiritual spaces can be positive environments to encourage expression of emotional outlet and grief in refugee crises. Traditional healing methods and spiritual rituals are effective to promote the psychosocial development of the children in diverse environments. Faith can positively impact the mourning process. Some Bible verses associated with losing a parent are, “Therefore you too have grief now; but I will see you again, and your heart will rejoice, and no one will take your joy away from you” (John 16:22).

Spirituality and religion are factors strongly associated with the people´s lives. The loss of a parent is a significative and traumatic event for a child, spirituality may help by giving a sense of the experiences faced, and also could provide tools to encourage the children to continue with his or her life. Also, spirituality is useful to understand and obtain explanations associated with death. For many religions death after life is a current teaching. In this context, these thoughts could be helpful for the child to do the positive implications. Religious rituals also, play an important role within grief. The participation of children in these types of experiences could be helpful to comprehend the situation and face the loss of someone loved. There are several studies that indicate that religions and spirituality are effective means to deal with death. Qualitative and quantitative studies in children suggest that they founded relief after experiencing spiritual rituals associated with the mourning process (Pandya, 2018). Spirituality is helpful for acceptance death; sense making; bonding with the family; benefit finding. Also the practice of spirituality avoids several distortions such as: seeing death as punishment and feeling guilty. Spirituality and religion are also linked with social support, this is important because it helps the children to deal with negative events (Pandya, 2018). The management of negative emotions becomes more easily having social environments and religious connections (Pandya, 2018).

References:

Berg L, Rostila M, Hjern A. (2016). Parental death during childhood and depression in young adults a national cohort study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 57(9):1092–1098. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12560.

Barnard, P., Morland, I., & Nagy, J. (1999). Children, Bereavement and Trauma : Nurturing Resilience. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Currier, J.M., Holland, J.M., Neimeyer, R.A. (2007). The effectiveness of bereavement interventions with children: a meta-analytic review of controlled outcome research. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2007;36(2):253–259. doi: 10.1080/15374410701279669.

Jordan, J.R., Neimeyer, R.A. (2003). Does grief counseling work? Death Stud. ;27(9):765–786. doi: 10.1080/713842360.

Maercker A, Brewin CR, Bryant RA, Cloitre M, van Ommeren M, Jones LM, Humayan A, Kagee A, Llosa AE, Rousseau C, Somasundaram DJ, Souza R, Suzuki Y, Weissbecker I, Wessely SC, First MB, Reed GM. (2013). Diagnosis and classification of disorders specifically associated with stress: proposals for ICD-11. World Psychiatry. 12(3):198–206. doi: 10.1002/wps.20057. doi: 10.1002/wps.20057.

McClean, K., Guerin, S. (2019). A qualitative analysis of psychologists´views of bereavement among children with intellectual disability in Ireland. British Journal of Learning Disabilities. Volume 47, Issue 4. https://doi-org.udlap.idm.oclc.org/10.1111/bld.122…

Murphy, S. A. (1996). Parent bereavement stress and preventive intervention following the violent deaths of adolescent.. Death Studies, 20(5), 441. https://doi-org.udlap.idm.oclc.org/10.1080/0748118…

Nilsson, D., & Ängarne-Lindberg, T. (2016). Children who lose a parent suddenly: what kind of assistance do they feel provides relief? A content analysis study of children and their parents. Child Care in Practice, 22(2), 197–209. https://doi-org.udlap.idm.oclc.org/10.1080/1357527…

Lord, A. J., Field, S., & Smith, I. C. (2017).The experiences of staff who support people with intellectual disability on issues about death, dying and bereavement: A metasynthesis. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities,30,1007– 1021. https://doi-org.udlap.idm.oclc.org/10.1111/jar.12376.

Pandya, S. P. (2018). Spirituality for Wellbeing of Bereaved Children in Residential Care: Insights for Spiritually Sensitive Child-Centred Social Work Across Country Contexts. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 35(2), 181–195. https://doi-org.udlap.idm.oclc.org/10.1007/s10560-…

Pereira, M., Johnsen, I., Hauken, M. A., Kristensen, P., & Dyregrov, A. (2017). Early Interventions Following the Death of a Parent: Protocol of a Mixed Methods Systematic Review. JMIR research protocols, 6(6), e127. https://doi.org/10.2196/resprot.7931

Rostila, M., & Saarela, J. (2011). Time does not heal all wounds: Mortality following the death of a parent. Journal of Marriage and Family, 73(1), 236–249.

Young, H., Hogg, J., & Garrard, B. (2017).Making sense of bereavement in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities: Carer perspectives. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities,30(6),1035– 1044.