cohen et al ., 2013 ). W r i t i n g

cohen et al ., 2013 ). W r i t i n g

1. Identify the assumption by number and title that presented the most questions for you. (Include the number and title in your subject line of the discussion thread when you post it.) Also, include an indicator about how concerning the assumption is to you at this time (that is, 0 = No concern at all, just the most problematic relative to all other assumptions I am presented; 1 = Somewhat concerned with this assumption; 2 = Very concerned with this assumption; 3 = Significantly concerned and in disagreement with this assumption).

Number: #5

Title: “Various Sources of Error Are Part of the Assessment Process”

How concerning the assumption is to you at this time:

0 = No concern at all, just the most problematic relative to all other assumptions I am presented

Identify specific parts or elements of the assumption that were most concerning to you.

Through the readings it is understandable how all seven of the assumptions play a crucial role in understanding and creating reliable and accurate testing. For this discussion the choice was made to discuss assumption 5, which focuses upon the calculations of error within the assessment process because of the difficulty to comprehend calculating and measuring for error. According to Cohen, Swerdlik, & Sturman, (2013) when looking at error measurability, numerous causes can come into play. This can include even the weather. Research indicated that weather had the ability to impact human expression of character traits during assessment (Cohen et al., 2013).

It becomes overwhelming to think of all of the ways that error can seep into assessments. However, my most concerning part is how one measures for error. In the article, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness as predictors of university students’ self/peer-assessment rating error, authors Birjandi & Siyyari (2016) sought to determine if the traits of agreeableness and conscientiousness would impact self-rating errors within the given circumstances of the study they were conducting. From the outcome of the study, Birjandi & Siyyari (2016) were unable to come to any conclusions that could indicate that these traits impacted the outcome of rating error.

Analyze if the assumption elements identified are based on (a) your previous experiences, (b) others’ perspectives, (c) facts, or (d) a combination of these.

The elements identified are based upon a combination of the present readings, and past experience as a researcher for the Department of Social Work at Arizona State University during my undergrad.

Discuss why these elements were most concerning to you in terms of those previous experiences, perspectives, or facts. Essentially, share an example of those experiences or knowledge that resulted in your current concern.

When I was an undergraduate student I participated in a research project where we analyzed information and used SPSS to look over the data. At the time as a junior, the professor heading the study was keen to inform me that there would need to be a 5% margin for error added. I did not understand what she meant. I did eventually learn to accept that error is added into the results. I just still do not know to this day how you weight error by percentage, and how you determine what to include as error.

Identify which future chapter in the Psychological Testing and Assessment text may be important and relevant for you, based on the assumption you identified.

Looking through the chapters I determined that chapter 6 on Validity would address my concerns. In particular pages 193-195 in chapter 6 goes over rating error, such as in leniency error, also known as generosity error (Cohen et al., 2013). This chapter provides a brief explanation on understanding more about what is used to determine rating errors.

2. A. Political & Social [Social hierarchy, who is in charge, who is powerful, who does what, social arrangements]

Example 1) Slaves – probably at the bottom of society

Example 2) Judges – probably in the middle class but powerful to an extent

Example 3) Kings – highest class and powerful

Example 4) Masters – owners of the slaves

B. Gender [rules, roles, expectations, and norms that differed for men and women]

Example 1) Men could have multiple wives

Example 2) Holy women may not go into a tavern for a drink

Example 3) Women must have a child with their husband otherwise, their husband can bring another woman home

Example 4) If a woman cheats on her husband, there will be consequences unless she is forgiven by her husband

C. Economic [money making, jobs, types of work/workers, transactions, what is valued]

Example 1) They had taverns – must have beers or drinks

Example 2) Barbers – were not allowed to cut off the markings of a slave

Example 3) Physicians – may not cut the eye out or kill otherwise, consequences would occur

Example 4) Builders – if the house was not constructed properly, the builder would deal with death or other punishments

D. Legal [laws, justice, fines, policing, types and nature of punishments, how the law was applied]

Example 1) If a veterinarian performs a serious operation and cures the animal, the owner shall pay the surgeon one-sixth of a shekel as a fee.

Example 2) If a house falls and ruins goods, the builder must compensate for the loss, such as replacing the goods and re-building the house

Example 3) If a son strikes his father, his hands shall be cut off.

Example 4) If a man is guilty of incest with his daughter, he shall leave the city (exiled).

E. What do you think of these laws and how would you summarize/describe them in 3 sentences?

These laws are very different than what we have in society in the present. It was very interesting learning about these but very weird and unusual from our laws. The laws were very unequal and a different style of punishment.

F. Comparing the past and present: • Which laws from Hammurabi’s Code that might be acceptable in Washington State in 2020 and why? Explain your reasoning. (If you need to slightly modify the law, that’s ok, too.)

(Law 232) If it ruins goods, he shall make compensation for all that has been ruined, and inasmuch as he did not construct properly this house which he built and it fell, he shall re-erect the house from his own means, that is at his own expense.

I believe that this law would be acceptable (probably already is just in different wording). It is basically like a warranty. If you purchase a product and it breaks, it usually can be returned, replaced, or repaired if proven it is a manufacturing issue and not normal wear and tear.

If I had a time machine and could go back to ancient Mesopotamia, I would probably stay there for a day at the most. The laws and society are very different than the current present. I do not believe I could adjust to the inequality that was there.