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I.) You are a policy advisor on a team of national security experts. You have been asked how to make interstate war less likely. Your colleague on the team, Dr. Hutchins, insists that it is impossible to make war less likely because war is caused by cultural differences, conflicting ideologies, and differences in values across countries. Write a brief memo to Dr. Hutchins, using what you know from POSC 020. Address the following:  Is he correct about the causes of war?  According to the bargaining model, which three things cause interstate war?  Explain in more depth these three causes of war.  Finally, explain three ways to make war less likely that are related to the causes of war that you explained.
II.) You are a policy advisor on a team of development experts in developing country X. You are tasked with improving economic development in country X. Your colleague on the team, Dr. Turkmen, insists that country X should not use import substitution industrialization (ISI) because ISI has serious flaws and leads to financial crises. She says that country X should instead rely on its comparative advantage in coffee and focus mainly on exporting coffee. She also says that country X should import all manufactured goods from other countries and that X should have no trade barriers because protectionism is harmful to economic growth. Write a memo addressing these points.  Is Dr. Turkmen correct about the flaws in ISI? Could ISI cause a financial crisis?  What is comparative advantage, and what are three disadvantages of relying on primary commodities?  What is protectionism, and is it always harmful to economic development?  Describe an alternative development strategy that is neither ISI nor comparative advantage that might work for country X.
III.) You are a policy advisor on a team of environmental experts. Your challenge is to encourage more cooperation among states on the problem of climate change. Your colleague on the team, Dr. Park, insists that it should be very easy for states to cooperate on the climate change issue. She believes this because cooperation on the issue of ozone depletion and the elimination of CFCs was easy. Write a memo to Dr. Park that addresses the following:  Explain what type of good having a stable global climate is and how the characteristics of that type of good cause a particular type of problem.  Contrast the climate change issue with the ozone depletion issue, explaining why it was easier for states to cooperate on eliminating CFCs.  Explain two things that can help states overcome the problem you described in  in order to cooperate better on environmental issues.  Give an example of something that might result from climate change, other than economic costs, if the problem is not solved.
IV.) You are a policy advisor on a team of human rights experts. Your assignment is to make the enforcement of human rights more likely and more effective, particularly by improving the International Criminal Court (ICC). Your colleague on the team, Dr. Larsen, insists that large-scale human rights violations no longer occur in the world anyway, and we should just go home. Write a memo to Dr. Larsen addressing the following:  Is it true that large-scale human rights violations no longer occur?  Explain what the ICC is and what it does.  Evaluate the ICC, noting at least one important criticism of the ICC or a factor that limits its effectiveness.  Finally, briefly explain one potential improvement that could be made to the ICC that might make it better at protecting international human rights.
V.) Write one paragraph each in response to all four of the following short answer questions:
What is a civil war? What causes civil wars? What might prevent civil war?
Why do states form alliances? What does the UN do? Does the UN matter?
Why do states trade? Why do states use protectionism? Why is trade controversial?
Where does international law come from? How are international norms different? Why are laws and norms important in the international system?